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Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society 2008;16(2):189-197.
Published online November 30, 2008.
Clinical Aspects of Functional Articulation Disorder.
Eun Young Oh, Young Hoon Kim, Hyun Seung Lee, In Goo Lee, Jun Sung Lee, Eun Sil Jang
1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. iamlidia@catholic.ac.kr
2Department of Speech-Language Therapy, Uijeongbu Saint Mary's Hospital, Uijeongbu, Korea.
Abstract
PURPOSE
Speech and language development is an useful indicator of the overall development of children. Since speech and language delay can lead to emotional, social, and learning problems, the early intervention is very important. We examined 137 children with speech or language problems including 22 children of functional articulation disorders of their clinical features. METHODS: 137 children with speech or language problems in the Department of Pediatrics, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for sex, age, developmental and language test findings retrospectively. Especially, in 22 children diagnosed with functional articulation disorders, articulation test findings were analyzed. RESULTS: 1) The mean age of 137 children was 46.8 months, the ratio of male to female was 2.5:1, and the most frequent age group was 24-35 months. The chief complaints included language delay(67.2%), mispronouncing speech sound(27%), stuttering(3.6%), learning disability(2.2%). The diagnoses of them were developmental language disorder(70.8%), functional articulation disorders(16.1%), mental retardation(5.8%), stuttering(2.9%), tongue tie(0.7%), normal language pattern(3.6%). 2) The mean age of 22 patients with functional articulation disorders was 63 months, the ratio of male to female was 1.4:1, and the most frequent age group was 60-71 months. The mean percentage of consonant correct of Picture Consonant Articulation Test was higher in older age group. In the types of phonetic errors substitutions were most common. Distortions, omissions, and additions were followed in the order of frequency. Substitutions and distortions were common in word initial and medial but omissions in word final. It is appeared that the patients had the difficulties in pronouncing alveolar fricative, palatal affricate, liquid, and velar plosive which mature lately in older children. Mainly palatal affricate, alveolar fricative, and velar plosive were substituted for alveolar plosive and the liquid and alveolar fricative were distorted as gliding. CONCLUSION: Categorizing the cause of language and speech delay is essential to make an adequate treatment plans and decrease the late complications. The future studies for the early screening, more suitable tests in Korean, treatment guidelines or prognosis are needed.
Key Words: Articulation disorders, Speech delay, Language delay


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