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Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society 2002;10(2):262-272.
Published online November 30, 2002.
Ischemic Stroke in Children: Analysis of Risk Factors.
Yeun Joo Choi, Joo Hyung Kang, Sung Hwan Kim
Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. pedkim@madang.ajou.ac.kr
This paper evaluate and classified the risk factors that could possibly cause ischemic stroke in children, and investigate whether TOAST classification could be applied to the ischemic stroke in children. METHODS: From March 1995 to February 2002, we retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 87 patients under the age 16 who had been registered to the Ajou Stroke Registry. We evaluated the risk factors of ischemic stroke according to the Ajou Stroke Registry Protocol, and classified the risk factors into 6 main subgroups. In addition, the risk factors were investigated according to the age distribution. TOAST classification had been applied to children with ischemic stroke. RESULTS: There was 64 ischemic stroke(73.6%) and 23 hemorrhagic stroke(26.4%) among the 87 patients. In children with ischemic stroke, there was three major peak age; 13 patients younger than 1 year old(15.3%), 26 patients in age 5 to 8 years old(40.6 %), 22 patients in 9 to 12 years old(34.3%). Vasculopathy(48.6%) was the most common risk factor of the ischemic stroke in this study. Other important risk factors in order of frequency were hypertensive encephalopathy(12.5%), infectious disease(7.8%), metabolic disease(7.8%), and hematologic disease(6.2%). Moyamoya disease was the most common cause of ischemic stroke due to vasculopathy. If we analyze the risk factors according to the age at the presentation of ischemic stroke, 90% of the ischemic stroke due to vasculopathy had been developed after 5 years of age. However, ischemic stroke due to infectious disease had been developed less than 4 years of age. Major stroke was the most common subtype of the ischemic stroke in children, but TIA had been found in 80% of the patients with ischemic stroke due to moyamoya disease. TOAST classification determined the subtype of the ischemic stroke only in 2 children. Risk factors of ischemic stroke in the remained 62 patients were extremely variable, and could not be applicable to the TOAST classification. CONCLUSION: Risk factor of ischemic stroke were found in the 90% of patients. Although risk factors of ischemic stroke were extremely variable in children, cerebral vasculopathy including moyamoya disease was the most common. However, inherited metabolic disorder, coagulopathy, and hypertensive encephalopathy were also relatively common risk factors of ischemic stroke especially in children older than 5 years old. Therefore, we must extensively evaluate all the possible risk factors of ischemic stroke in children. TOAST classification could not be applicable in children because the risk factors of ischemic stroke were extremely variable.
Key Words: Ischemic stroke, Risk factor, TIA, TOAST classification, Children
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