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Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society 2011;19(2):102-108.
Published online August 30, 2011.
Recurrent Bacterial Meningitis in Pediatric Patients with Anatomical Defects.
Eun Lee, Eun Hye Lee, Mi Sun Yum, Tae Sung Ko
1Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. tsko@amc.seoul.kr
2Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Abstract
PURPOSE
Recurrent bacterial meningitis represents the reappearance of two or more episodes of meningitis by a different or same organism after an intervening period of full convalescence. Predisposing factors for recurrent bacterial meningitis include developmental or traumatic anatomical defects or immunodeficiencies. The purpose of this study was to characterize recurrent bacterial meningitis in children. METHODS: We identified 81 cases of bacterial meningitis diagnosed at the Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital between January 1999 and March 2009. We conducted retrospective reviews for children (below 18 years of age) with recurrent bacterial meningitis who had been diagnosed both by latex agglutination and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. RESULTS: Among 81 cases, 4 patients were identified as having recurrent bacterial meningitis, among whom 13 episodes of meningitis were identified. Two episodes occurred in 2 patients, 2 in 1 patient, and 6 in 1 patient. Three patients had inner ear anomalies with CSF leakage and 1 patient had a traumatic CSF fistula, representing predisposing factors. Of the 13 episodes, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the causative agent in 10 episodes and Hemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus. mitis were the other causative organisms. After the second case of meningitis, successful repair of CSF leakage prevented further development of meningitis in 3 patients. Despite several repair operations for CSF leakage, 1 patient died of cerebral edema during the 6th episode of meningitis. In addition, 2 patients experienced further episodes of meningitis after vaccination against pneumococcus or H. influenzae type B in our study. CONCLUSION: Identification and proper management of conditions that predispose children to recurrent bacterial meningitis are essential to prevent further, potentially lethal infections.
Key Words: Bacterial meningitis, Pediatric patients, Anatomical defect


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