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Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society 2013;21(3):200-207.
Published online September 30, 2013.
Apert and Pfeiffer Syndromes: A Report of Two Cases.
Sun Young Yoon, Shin Won Yoon, Heejung Chung
1Department of Pediatrics, National Health Insurance Service, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea. agathac@nhimc.or.kr
2Developmental Delay Clinic, National Health Insurance Service, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
3Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Korea.
Abstract
Craniosysostosis syndrome is caused by premature fusion of bones of skull and face during fetal development. It is related to Fibroblast growth factor receptor gene and most common craniosynostosis syndromes are Apert, Pfeiffer and Crouzon. Apert syndrome is one of the severe type of craniosynostosis syndromes which shows mutations in the Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. Pfeiffer syndrome is also related with FGFR 1 or 2 gene mutation. We experienced two patients with craniosynostosis syndromes, Apert syndrome and Pfeiffer syndrome. The first baby was a in-born female baby presented with syndactly of the hands and feet and facial dysmorphism including shallow orbit with deep crease above eye brow. Apert syndrome was confirmed by the presence of a mutation in FGFR2. The second patient visited our developmental delay clinic due to developmental delay at seven month old age. He showed facial dysmorphism including cloverleaf-shaped skull, micrognathia, low set ears, low nasal bridge and high-arched palate, but there were no syndactly or limb anomalies. He was suspected of Pfeiffer syndrome, however his FGFR2 gene study was normal. These patients need multidisciplinary team management and regular follow up for visual, auditory, and cognitive development functions Pediatricians have important role on recognizing the patients with facial dysmorphism, planning to evaluate accompanying anomalies and making appropriate decisions about the timing of surgical management to minimize growth and cognitive impairments.
Key Words: Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Craniosynostosis, Multidisciplinary team management
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